GeoLibrary » Reference Library

Search Results

Showing results 1 - 10 of 659

« New Search

Marine cloud brightening

Author(s): Latham J, Bower K, Choularton T, Coe H, Connolly P, Cooper G, Craft T, Foster J, Gadian A, Galbraith L, Iacovides H, Johnston D, Launder B, Leslie B, Meyer J, Neukermans A, Ormond B, Parkes B, Rasch P, Rush J, Salter S, Stevenson T, Wang H, Wang Q, Wood R

Published: September, 2012

Publisher: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences

DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2012.0086

Tags: Cloud Brightening

URL: http://rsta.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/370/1974/4217.full.html

Abstract: The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could—subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein—have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud–albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.


The urgency of the development of CO2 capture from ambient air

Author(s): Lackner KS, Brennan S, Matter JM, Park A-HA, Wright A, van der Zwaan B

Published: August, 2012

Publisher: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1108765109

Tags: air capture

URL: http://www.pnas.org/content/109/33/13156.abstract?etoc

Abstract: CO2 capture and storage (CCS) has the potential to develop into an important tool to address climate change. Given society’s present reliance on fossil fuels, widespread adoption of CCS appears indispensable for meeting stringent climate targets. We argue that for conventional CCS to become a successful climate mitigation technology—which by necessity has to operate on a large scale—it may need to be complemented with air capture, removing CO2 directly from the atmosphere. Air capture of CO2 could act as insurance against CO2 leaking from storage and furthermore may provide an option for dealing with emissions from mobile dispersed sources such as automobiles and airplanes.


Stratospheric aerosol particles and solar-radiation management

Author(s): Pope FD, Braesicke P, Grainger RG, Kalberer M, Watson IM, Davidson PJ, Cox RA

Published: August, 2012

Publisher: Nature Climate Change

DOI: 10.1038/nclimate1528

Tags: Stratospheric Aerosols

URL: http://www.nature.com/nclimate/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nclimate1528.html

Abstract: The deliberate injection of particles into the stratosphere has been suggested as a possible geoengineering scheme to mitigate the global warming aspect of climate change. Injected particles scatter solar radiation back to space and thus reduce the radiative balance of Earth. Previous studies investigating this scheme have focused primarily on sulphuric acid particles to mimic volcanic injections of stratospheric aerosol. However, the composition and size of volcanic sulphuric acid particles are far from optimal for scattering solar radiation. We show that aerosols with other compositions, such as minerals, could be used to dramatically increase the amount of light scatter achieved on a per mass basis, thereby reducing the particle mass required for injection. The chemical consequences of injecting such particles into the stratosphere are discussed with regard to the fate of the ozone layer. Research questions are identified with which to assess the feasibility of such geoengineering schemes.


Engineering the Climate: The Ethics of Solar Radiation Management (Book)

Author(s): Preston CJ

Published: August, 2012

Publisher: Lexington Books

Tags: Ethics

URL: http://www.amazon.co.uk/Engineering-Climate-Ethics-Radiation-Management/dp/0739175408

Abstract: Engineering the Climate: The Ethics of Solar Radiation Management discusses the ethical issues associated with deliberately engineering a cooler climate to combat global warming. Climate engineering (also known as geoengineering) has recently experienced a surge of interest given the growing likelihood that the global community will fail to limit the temperature increases associated with greenhouse gases to safe levels. Deliberate manipulation of solar radiation to combat climate change is an exciting and hopeful technical prospect, promising great benefits to those who are in line to suffer most through climate change. At the same time, the prospect of geoengineering creates huge controversy. Taking intentional control of earth's climate would be an unprecedented step in environmental management, raising a number of difficult ethical questions. One particular form of geoengineering, solar radiation management (SRM), is known to be relatively cheap and capable of bringing down global temperatures very rapidly. However, the complexity of the climate system creates considerable uncertainty about the precise nature of SRM's effects in different regions. The ethical issues raised by the prospect of SRM are both complex and thorny. They include: 1) the uncertainty of SRM's effects on precipitation patterns, 2) the challenge of proper global participation in decision-making, 3) the legitimacy of intentionally manipulating the global climate system in the first place, 4) the potential to sidestep the issue of dealing with greenhouse gas emissions, and, 5) the lasting effects on future generations. It has been widely acknowledged that a sustained and scholarly treatment of the ethics of SRM is necessary before it will be possible to make fair and just decisions about whether (or how) to proceed. This book, including essays by 13 experts in the field of ethics of geoengineering, is intended to go some distance towards providing that treatment.


Towards Integrated Ethical and Scientific Analysis of Geoengineering: A Research Agenda

Author(s): Tuana N, Sriver RL, Svoboda T, Olson R, Irvine PJ, Haqq-Misra J, Keller K

Published: July, 2012

Publisher: Ethics, Policy & Environment

DOI: 10.1080/21550085.2012.685557

Tags: Ethics, Research

URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/21550085.2012.685557

Abstract: Concerns about the risks of unmitigated greenhouse gas emissions are growing. At the same time, confidence that international policy agreements will succeed in considerably lowering anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is declining. Perhaps as a result, various geoengineering solutions are gaining attention and credibility as a way to manage climate change. Serious consideration is currently being given to proposals to cool the planet through solar-radiation management. Here we analyze how the unique and nontrivial risks of geoengineering strategies pose fundamental questions at the interface between science and ethics. To illustrate the importance of integrated ethical and scientific analysis, we define key open questions and outline a coupled scientific-ethical research agenda to analyze solar-radiation management geoengineering proposals. We identify nine key fields of coupled research including whether solar-radiation management can be tested, how quickly learning could occur, normative decisions embedded in how different climate trajectories are valued, and justice issues regarding distribution of the harms and benefits of geoengineering. To ensure that ethical analyses are coupled with scientific analyses of this form of geoengineering, we advocate that funding agencies recognize the essential nature of this coupled research by establishing an Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications program for solar-radiation management.


Introduction to the Special Section, ‘The Ethics of Geoengineering: Investigating the Moral Challenges of Solar Radiation Management’

Author(s): Scott D

Published: July, 2012

Publisher: Ethics, Policy & Environment

DOI: 10.1080/21550085.2012.688287

Tags: Ethics

URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/21550085.2012.688287

Abstract: Serious high-level discussions are taking place over research into engineering the earth's climate by reducing incoming solar radiation – so called solar radiation management (SRM). Influential bodies such as the United States Congress, the Royal Society, and others, have taken hard looks into SRM and are encouraging research into this broad set of technological responses to unabated, anthropogenic climate change. Most significantly, for the first time, the United Nation's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change will include assessments of SRM in its Fifth Assessment Report, due out in 2013 and 2014. This rapid expansion of high-level discussions and increased rates of research efforts will be accompanied by vigorous and contentious scientific, ethical and political debates.


Precaution and Solar Radiation Management

Author(s): Hartzell-Nichols L

Published: July, 2012

Publisher: Ethics, Policy & Environment

DOI: 10.1080/21550085.2012.685561

Tags: Ethics, Environmental Side-Effects, Research

URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/21550085.2012.685561

Abstract: Solar radiation management is a form of geoengineering that involves the intentional manipulation of solar radiation with the aim of reducing global average temperature. This paper explores what precaution implies about the status of solar radiation management. It is argued that any form of solar radiation management that poses threats of catastrophe cannot constitute an appropriate precautionary measure against another threat of catastrophe, namely climate change. Research of solar radiation management is appropriate on a precautionary view only insofar as such research aims to identify whether any forms of solar radiation management could be implemented without creating new or exacerbating existing threats of catastrophe.


Now This! Indigenous Sovereignty, Political Obliviousness and Governance Models for SRM Research

Author(s): Powys Whyte K

Published: July, 2012

Publisher: Ethics, Policy & Environment

DOI: 10.1080/21550085.2012.685570

Tags: Ethics, Politics, Governance, Research

URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/21550085.2012.685570

Abstract: Models are currently being outlined for governance of early research on Solar Radiation Management (SRM), a form of geoengineering. SRM includes techniques that decrease the earth's and its atmosphere's absorption of solar energy such as adding ‘light-scattering aerosols to the upper atmosphere’ and ‘increasing the lifetime and reflectivity of low-altitude clouds’ (Keith, Parson & Morgan, 2010, p. 426). If implemented, the global effects of such SRM solutions will in some fashion impact everyone. Indigenous peoples, among other populations, are right to be concerned about how governance plans unfold.


Beyond the End of Nature: SRM and Two Tales of Artificity for the Anthropocene

Author(s): Preston CJ

Published: July, 2012

Publisher: Ethics, Policy & Environment

DOI: 10.1080/21550085.2012.685571

Tags: Ethics, Environmental Side-Effects

URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/21550085.2012.685571

Abstract: In 1989, Bill McKibben wrote a now famous book declaring that anthropogenic climate change marked the ‘end of nature.’ Like threatened species, McKibben claimed, ideas can go extinct. The idea of nature untouched by human influence is one such idea, McKibben suggested, an idea now being extinguished by climate change. Until the advent of recent global warming, nature stood for ‘the separate and wild province, the world apart from man to which he adapted and under whose rules he was born and died’ (McKibben, 1989, p. 48). In today's warming world, ‘each cubic yard of air, each square foot of soil, is stamped indelibly with our crude imprint, our X’ (McKibben, 1989, p. 96). With anthropogenic climate change ‘the meaning of the wind, the sun, the rain – nature – has already changed’ (McKibben, 1989, p. 48). As a result, humans face an unprecedented and disorienting loss.


Will Geoengineering With Solar Radiation Management Ever Be Used?

Author(s): Robock A

Published: July, 2012

Publisher: Ethics, Policy & Environment

DOI: 10.1080/21550085.2012.685573

Tags: Environmental Side-Effects

URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/21550085.2012.685573

Abstract: As a meteorologist, I understand the limits of prediction of physical systems, let alone human ones, but here I will attempt to predict whether geoengineering will ever be used. While the term ‘geoengineering’ has come to encompass several different responses to global warming, here I will use the term to refer to solar radiation management, ideas about reducing incoming sunlight to cool the planet (Lenton & Vaughan, 2009; Shepherd et al., 2009).
The geoengineering ideas that have gotten the most attention are the creation of a stratospheric aerosol cloud, to mimic the effects of episodic volcanic eruptions, and the brightening of low clouds over the ocean, to mimic ship tracks. No cloud has ever been produced on purpose in the stratosphere, and no low cloud has ever been brightened on purpose, and there are serious issues with the practicality of either of these ideas, but for now I will assume that at some time in the future they will become technically possible and affordable. Still I do not think either will ever be implemented on a global basis, because of the inherent risks and uncertainties.


Showing results 1 - 10 of 659

« New Search

Website by Pandemedia